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दुर्गराज रायगड - वेदांत भागवत

दुर्गराज रायगड 

दुर्गांमध्ये जेष्ठ | सर्वांत राहुनी अलिप्त ||  राजनीतीत म्हक्लीष्ट | तो राय दुर्ग श्रेष्ठ ||

         दुर्गांचा राजा म्हणून या रायगडला संबोधले जाते.या वर वेगळ लिहिण्याची मला फारशी गरज नाही, पण परवाच गडावर जाणं झाल्यामुळे, लिहाव काहीतरी ! अस प्रकर्षाने वाटलं. मुळात रायगड परिचित नाही अशी व्यक्ती निदान महाराष्ट्रात तरी शोधून सापडणे अवघड आहे. संभाजी राजे म्हणालेले राजांशिवाय रायगड ही कल्पनाच करणे अवघड आहे. किल्ला कसा बांधावा याचे उत्तम उदहरण म्हणजे रायगड चे बांधकाम. राजेशाही थाटातला एक लढाऊ किल्ला असाच आपल्याला रायगड चा उल्लेख करावा लागेल ! याच किल्ल्याला कोण एका ब्रिटीश अधिकाऱ्याने fort of mystery अस म्हटल आहे. आपल्याला सुद्धा अनेक वेळा या किल्ल्याबाबत खूप गोष्टी रहस्यमय वाटतात.

           अनेक प्राचीन दंतकथा आपल्याला या किल्ल्याच्या बाबतीत ऐकायला मिळतात. या दंतकथा कितपत खऱ्या खोट्या आहेत हे कळायला मार्ग नाही पण ऐकीव माहिती कुठेतरी खरी असल्यासारखी भासते. एक उदहरण म्हणून; एक दंत कथा महाड च्या आसपासच्या गावांमध्ये प्रसिद्ध आहे ती म्हणजे महाडचे ग्राम दैवत श्री विरेश्वर महारा…

The Great Mississippi Bubble - Part 4

From Part 3


        In 1715, France had already become richest and wealthy country in the Europe. But the fiscal system of the France was not that sound as compared to other countries from Europe. John Law decided to take the advantage of this system.  He proposed to the government that now it’s a good time to issue paper notes as a legal tender. During that time, due to increase in number of wars, France government was already in trouble as debts had increased by multiple times. Almost Three billion Livres! (French currency at that time!). The value of one Livre at that time was one pound of silver which was worth $236 approx. on 19th September, 2014 as per records available. 
        John Law was successful in convincing Phillips who was a Duke at that time. He was interested in reducing in Public debt. Law’s proposal promised to fulfill this objective hence finally regent from France granted permission for establishment of private bank and granted a license to J…

The Great Mississippi Bubble - Part 3

Continuing from part 1AND part 2 John Law – The mastermind of the Mississippi Bubble

John Law, the mastermind behind this great bubble of Mississippi company. John law was a man with a story. He was born in 1671 at Edinburgh of Scotland. His father was a Goldsmith. Being born in a wealthy family, he joined his family business and started leaning banking under the guidance of his father. Later on, for further studies, he was sent to London for higher studies. He had a passion for women and gambling. Due to this he lost his sizable money in gambling. But he was very brilliant and known for his ability of wining cards by calculating odds mentally. To the worst, he killed a man in a duel resulting him found guilty in murder and was sentenced to death.
    Later on, his sentenced was commuted to manslaughter and fine. However, he managed to escape to London and then flew to Europe in 1694. Continuing his education in banking and economics he started developing his own economic theories whic…

The great Mississippi Bubble - Part 2

Continued from first Part!!

       In the earlier part, we stopped at the general introduction of what is this Mississippi series. In this part we will again see some basic information and few terminologies which were famous at time. 

Start of the first speculative boom Financial bubble of Mississippi, the South Sea bubble in England and some other related bubbles in Holland were the start of the speculative boom in the international stock market. This was all started in the early decade of the 18th Century, i.e. In 1719-1720 period. In fact, the bubble of Mississippi was responsible for two things. The word ‘bubble’ was started to use as a synonym to ‘Speculative boom’ and a hesitation to use word ‘bank’ for next 150 years due to John Law and his 'Banque General'.          If we check the dictionary meaning of the financial bubble, then it shows that bubble means, “any unsound commercial undertaking accompanied by a high degree of speculation", and the same thing happened in…

The great Mississippi Bubble - Part 1

The great Mississippi Bubble

“My shares which on Monday I bought Were worth millions on Tuesday, I thought. Then, on Wednesday I chose my abode; In my carriage on Thursday I rode; To the ballroom on Friday I went; To the workhouse next day, I was sent.”

      A poem appeared in the newspapers of the Paris as a result of the great collapse of Mississippi shares. “Thus ends the system of paper money, which has enriched a thousand beggars and impoverished a hundred thousand honest men”, the words said by Marais a French nobleman clearly states, how the bubble affected the people of France, rich people especially. The great Mississippi bubble was a great example of how share prices of the company are inflated due to various reasons, maybe because of technical reasons or may be due to the mentality of the people to book profits from the rising share prices.
The person behind this all mess, is none other than the famous John Law. In the pages of history, this man has been called everything. Econo…

अक्षी येथील गद्धेगळ (भाग-2) [Ass- Curse stone Akshee part-2]

भाग एक पासून
मागील भागात सोमेश्वराच्या इथे असणाऱ्या गद्धेगळ बाबत माहिती घेतली, तेव्हा आता हा लेख अक्षी गावात असणाऱ्या दुसऱ्या गद्धेगळ बाबत...
   'Gazetteer of Bombay PresidencyKolaba'याचा उल्लेख आपल्याला आढळून येतो तो असा, Akshï has twotemples, one of Kâlkâbôrvâ Dêvï and the other of Sômésvara Mahâdëva About twenty-fivepaces from the Dëvî's temple, on the road, to the left of the house of one Râma Nâik, is aninscribed stone, 4'3" long by 1 ' broad Above are the Sun and Moon followed by the ass-curse;then comes a roughly cut writing of nine lines m Dèvanâgari character, and below the writing,a second representation of the Sun and Moon

अक्षी येथील गद्धेगळ (भाग-१) [Ass- Curse stone Akshee part-1]

गद्धेगळ वर वाचल्यानंतर बरेच दिवस आक्षीला जायचे मनात होते पण बेत काही जमत नव्हता, पण दिवाळीच्या निमित्ताने तिकडे जाता आले आणि बर्यापैकी सुस्थितीत असलेली गद्धेगळ पाहायला मिळाले. तर आजचा लेख हा त्याच गद्धेगळ वर!
    सुरुवात करण्यापूर्वी अक्षी गावाची थोडी माहिती सांगतो! अक्षी हे गाव अलिबाग-रेवदंडा रस्त्यावर, अलिबाग पासून साधारण ६ किमी अंतरावर असलेले हे गाव ओळखले जाते ते त्याच्या सुंदर समुद्र किनार्यामुळे. शनिवार-रविवार ओसंडून गर्दी असलेला हा परिसर इतर दिवशी मात्र शांत असतो. नारळ-पोफळीच्या वाड्या, प्रेमळ माणसे आणि भरभरून इतिहास असणारा हा प्रदेश कोणत्याही भटक्याला भुरळ पडतो.
   अक्षी गावात दोन जुनी मंदिरे आहेत. एक म्हणजे कालकाबोरवा देवी आणि दुसरे म्हणजे सोमेश्वराचे मंदीर. याच सोमेश्वराच्या मंदिराच्या आवारात पहिला गद्धेगळ आहे. अक्षी गावात गाडी शिरली की अगदी रस्त्यामधेच एक दगडी स्तंभ लागतो. दगडी स्तंभावरून गाडी गावात शिरली की सोमेश्वराचे मंदीर लागते आणि तिथेच रस्त्याच्या डावीकडे हा गद्धेगळ उभा करून ठेवला आहे. 'Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency- Kolaba and Janjira, 1883',मध्ये याचा उल्ल…