सम्राट अशोकाचे धर्मांतर नक्की कधी झाले?

  • August 09, 2020
  • By Shantanu Paranjape

Ashoka the Great - Ancient History Encyclopedia
KIng Ashoka

असे म्हणतात की अशोक राजाला कलिंगा विरुद्ध झालेल्या युद्धामुळे आणि त्यात झालेल्या हानीमुळे तसेच नरसंहारामुळे पश्चाताप झाला आणि त्याने अजिविकांचा धर्म सोडून बौद्ध धर्म स्वीकारला. अशोकाचे पूर्वीचे नाव होते 'चंडअशोक' म्हणजे अत्यंत कृर असा राजा.

अशोक राजाने भारतात अनेक लेख कोरले त्यातील सध्या पाकिस्तानात असलेल्या शहाबाजगढी येथील शिलालेखात याचा उल्लेख मिळतो. गम्मत म्हणजे केवळ याच लेखात या युद्धाचे तसेच त्या नंतर बौद्ध धर्मात गेल्याचे उल्लेख मिळतात. इतर कोणत्याही लेखात तसेच बौद्ध धर्मग्रंथात त्याचा उल्लेख मिळत नाही.

अशोकाचे मौर्य सैन्य आणि कलिंग राज्य यांच्यात सध्याच्या भुवनेश्वर येथील धौली येथे युद्ध झाले. हे युद्ध सन २६२ BC या वर्षात झाले. सुमारे १ लाख सैन्य या युद्धात गेले. तसेच अनेक लोकं जखमांनी मेले. सुमारे १.५ लाख लोकांना कैदी म्हणून पकडण्यात आले. अशोक राजाने राज्यारोहण केल्यावर आठव्या वर्षी ये युद्ध झाले असे हा लेख सांगतो. (गम्मत म्हणून धौली आणि शहाबाजगढी या दोन ठिकाणात नेमके किती अंतर आहे हे एकदा बघा. तसेच शहाबाजगढी इथला लेख हा खरोष्टी लिपीत असून इतर सर्व लेख हे ब्राह्मी लिपीत आहेत. खरोष्टी लिपी ही पाकिस्तान आणि त्यापुढील वायव्य भागातच वापरली जात होती. )

List of edicts of Ashoka – EasyStudy Blogs

अशोक राजाचा एक लेख धौली येथे सुद्धा कोरला आहे. हा लेख नक्कीच कलिंग राजावर विजय मिळवल्यानंतर कोरला असणार हे नक्की परंतु त्या लेखात कुठेही पश्चाताप झाल्याची नोंद दिसत नाही. किमान ज्या ठिकाणी युद्ध झाले त्या ठिकाणी तरी याची नोंद हवी होती परंतु धौली येथील लेखात तसे काही आढळत नाही.

याउलट अनेक ग्रंथांमध्ये असा उल्तेख येतो की अशोक राजचे धर्मपरिवर्तन हे सुमारे ३ वर्ष चालले आणि ते राज्याभिषेक झाल्यानंतर चौथ्या वर्षात पूर्ण झाले. तर कलिंगा राजाच्यावर केलेली स्वारी ही आठव्या वर्षी केली गेली.

बाकी निष्कर्ष मी आम्ही वाचकांवर सोडून देतो. ज्याला जसा अर्थ लावायचा तो लावू शकतो. अर्थात या विषयावर आणखीन खोलात जाऊन नक्की लिहिण्याचा प्रयत्न करतो..!

संदर्भ -

1. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol.1 Inscriptions Of Asoka
2. The Ocean of Churn: How the Indian Ocean Shaped Human History by Sanjeev Sanyal
3. Meaning of 13th Inscription of Ashokan Rock Edict at Shahabazgarhi.

(A) When king Dēvānaṁpriya Priyadarśin had been anointed eight years, (the country of) the Kaliṅgas was conquered by (him). (B) One hundred and fifty thousand in number were the men who were deported thence, one hundred thousand in number were those who were slain there, and many times as many those who died. (C) After that, now that (the country of) the Kaliṅgas has been taken, Dēvānaṁpriya (is devoted) to a zealous study of morality, to the love of morality, and to the instruction (of people) in morality. (D) This is the repentance of Dēvānāṁpriya on account of his conquest of (the country of) the Kaliṅgas. (E) For, this is considered very painful and deplorable by Dēvānāṁpriya, that, while one is conquering an unconquered (country), slaughter, death, and deportation of people (are taking place) there. (F) But the following is considered even more deplorable than this by Dēvānāṁpriya. (G) (To) the Brāhmaṇas or Śramaṇas, or other sects or householders, who are living there, (and) among whom the following are practised: obedience to those who receive high pay, obedience to mother and father, obedience to elders, proper courtesy to friends, acquaintances, companions, and relatives, to slaves and servants, (and) firm devotion,—to these then happen injury or slaughter or deportation of (their) beloved ones. (H) Or, if there are then incurring misfortune the friends, acquaintances, companions, and relatives of those whose affection (for the latter) is undiminished, although they are (themselves) well provided for, this (misfortune) as well becomes an injury to those (persons) themselves. (I) This is shared by all men and is considered deplorable by Dēvānāṁpriya. (J) And there is no (place where men) are not indeed attached to some sect. (K) Therefore even the hundredth part or the thousandth part of all those people who were slain, who died, and who were deported at that time in Kaliṅga, (would) now be considered very deplorable by Dēvānāṁpriya. (L) And Dēvānāṁpriya thinks that even (to one) who should wrong (him), what can be forgiven is to be forgiven, (M) And even (the inhabitants of) the forests which are (included) in the dominions of Dēvānāṁpriya, even those he pacifies (and) converts. (N) And they are told of the power (to punish them) which Dēvānāṁpriya (possesses) in spite of (his) repentance, in order that they may be ashamed (of their crimes) and may not be killed. (O) For Dēvānāṁpriya desires towards all beings abstention from hurting, self-control, (and) impartiality in (case of) violence. (P) And this conquest is considered the principal one by Dēvānāṁpriya, viz. the conquest by morality [dhamma vijaya]. (Q) And this (conquest) has been won repeatedly by Dēvānāṁpriya both here and among all (his) borderers, even as far as at (the distance of) six hundred yōjanas,where the Yōna king named Antiyoka (is ruling), and beyond this Antiyoka, (where) four—4—kings (are ruling), (viz. the king) named Turamaya, (the king) named Antikini, (the king) named Maka, (and the king) named Alikaṣudara, (and) towards the south, (where) the Chōḍas and Pāṇḍyas (are ruling), as far as Tāmraparṇī. (R) Likewise here in the king’s territory, among the Yōnas and Kambōyas, among the Nabhakas and Nabhitis, among the Bhōjas and Pitinikas, among the Andhras and Palidas,—everywhere (people) are conforming to Dēvānāṁpriya’s instruction in morality [dhamma]. (S) Even, those to whom the envoys of Dēvānāṁpriya do not go, having heard of the duties of morality, the ordinances, (and) the instruction in morality of Dēvānāṁpriya, are conforming to morality and will conform to (it). (T) This conquest, which has been won by this everywhere,—a conquest (won) everywhere (and) repeatedly,—causes the feeling of satisfaction. (U) Satisfaction has been obtained (by me) at the conquest by morality. (V) But this satisfaction is indeed of little (consequence). (W) Dēvānāṁpriya thinks that only the fruits in the other (world) are of great (value). (X) And for the following purpose has this rescript on morality been written, (viz.) in order that the sons (and) great-grandsons (who) may be (born) to me, should not think that a fresh conquest ought to be made, (that), if a conquest does please them, they should take pleasure in mercy and light punishments, and (that) they should regard the conquest by morality as the only (true) conquest. (Y) This (conquest bears fruit) in this world (and) in the other world. (Z) And let there be (to them) pleasure in the abandonment of all (other aims), which is pleasure in morality. (AA) For this (bears fruit) in this world (and) in the other world.

फोटो -
१. संदर्भ पुस्तकातील पुरावा.
२. शहाबाजगढी येथील प्रस्तरलेख

टीप - हा विषय आणखीन खोलात जाऊन सुद्धा मांडता येईल. यावर जमलं तर आणखीन भागांची मालिका करेन..!

File:Ashoka Rock Edicts Shahbazgarhi by Nisar2.JPG - Wikimedia Commons

© 2020, Shantanu Paranjape

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  1. लेखात एक छोटीशी चुक झाली आहे तेवढी दुरुस्ती करा. *राज्याभिषेक झाल्यानंतर चौथ्या शतकात पूर्ण झाले* चौथे शतक की चौथे वर्ष

    1. धन्यवाद..! दुरुस्त केले आहे


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